The March 2009 release of the Food Traceability Investigative Report by the Health & Human Services Inspector General surprised both members of Congress and food industry observers by revealing the astounding lack of knowledge of existing traceability requirements on the part of industry executives. "One-up, One-down" Traceability has been mandated since 2005 under theprovisions of the Bioterrorism Act of 2002, but has been widely ignored at all levels of the food value-chain.